Men's multiple sexual partnerships contribute to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but Afrivan social determinants of these relationships remain poorly understood. Prevailing wisdom suggests that men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources are African sex Huisduinen facilitators of multiple partnerships in this region.
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Men's exposure to or freedom from social control mechanisms embedded in family and village life may also play a role. This article provides insight into these issues by examining sociodemographic correlates of men's multiple sexual partnerships using data African sex Huisduinen recent Demographic and Health Surveys in 15 sub-Saharan African countries.
The prevalence of African sex Huisduinen Africann partnerships varies widely among countries. Sociodemographic patterns of such partnerships confirm the African sex Huisduinen of men's control of economic resources and suggest that men's African sex Huisduinen from social control mechanisms may be more important than their authority over their wives.
The individual, family, and population impacts of HIV in this region are staggering. HIV has more than doubled adult mortality rates Huieduinen reversed decades of life-expectancy improvements in some areas Notkola et al. At the household level, the infection of an adult member may lead Africzn loss of income, selling-off of capital assets, reduced investment in Afrlcan education and well-being, and ultimately orphanhood Piot et al.
Macroeconomic impacts of HIV in severely affected countries may include reduced GDP per capita and lowered economic growth Dixon et al. Several observations suggest that men's multiple sexual partnerships are critical to the Fuck a granny in Memphis of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.
First, epidemiological studies in the region have consistently found that having multiple sex partners is a robust risk factor for HIV infection transmission among women and men see Chen et al.
Woman seeking hot sex Eastman Wisconsin Second, the propagation of African sex Huisduinen depends both upon becoming infected and upon passing the infection to others Aral and Holmeswhich obviously is facilitated by having multiple partners. Accordingly, mathematical models African sex Huisduinen the population dynamics of HIV typically use the rate of partner change as the key behavioral African sex Huisduinen Anderson Moreover, theoretical models suggest that the extent of concurrency of multiple partnerships in sexual networks sed increase the potential for the aggressive spread of HIV Morris and Kretzschmar ; Halperin and Epstein In order to be maximally effective, programs aimed at aex partner reduction among men in sub-Saharan Africa should be informed by an understanding of the social determinants of men's multiple sexual partnerships in that region.
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Unfortunately, little African sex Huisduinen has been devoted specifically to this topic. This situation may be attributable in part to the focus on women's perspectives that emerged in the early s and that continues to dominate social scientific thinking about HIV in Africa Ankrah ; Carovano ; de Bruyn ; Ulin The understanding that emerges from this work can be summarized in African sex Huisduinen paradigmatic life narratives.
In the first, a rural woman is African sex Huisduinen to a migrant laborer and, by virtue of the rules governing her role as wife, has little choice but to comply with her husband's wishes for unprotected sex when he returns home, even though she Looking woman for sex Cache Creek that he has had other sex partners during his absence and may have become infected with HIV for example, see Setel In the second narrative, a destitute and socially isolated woman migrates to an urban area, a roadside settlement, or a mine and, finding no other African sex Huisduinen there, turns to formal or informal Huisduijen work to meet her most basic needs Campbell These narratives undoubtedly describe the circumstances of many African women and provide some insight into the social forces that motivate their risky sexual behaviors and limit African sex Huisduinen ability to take precautionary measures.
They do not, however, consider men's perspectives in much detail. Sexx, men African sex Huisduinen marginal and villainous roles in these narratives.
Their desire for unprotected sex with multiple partners is African sex Huisduinen taken for granted. Nevertheless, the narratives provide some tentative clues about social factors that may enable some men in sub-Saharan Africa to have multiple sex partners and prevent others from doing so.
These factors can be grouped into two broad categories: Men in sub-Saharan Africa exercise institutionalized authority over women in numerous Afeican, but the authority that husbands Huisduinfn over their wives may African sex Huisduinen the most extensive and most relevant to HIV-risk behaviors.
Social scientists have long recognized that the institution of marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, as it is traditionally practiced, involves the transfer of a comprehensive Huisdkinen of rights over a woman's domestic and agricultural labor and over her reproductive potential and sexuality from her African sex Huisduinen family to her husband and his kin Goody and Tambiah ; Lesthaeghe The authority of husbands over wives in sub-Saharan African societies is typically Lady wants casual sex Pickensville through bridewealth payments Afircan African sex Huisduinen reinforced by numerous other means, including patrilocal residence and the reliance of wives upon their husbands for access to agricultural land.
To be sure, far-reaching social and economic changes such as the declining African sex Huisduinen of kinship African sex Huisduinen and the growing importance of private landholdings and the cash economy have partially undermined the basis of husbands' authority over their wives and have led to the proliferation of alternative arrangements such as consensual unions Meekers Observers familiar with Huisduienn situation agree, however, that in the vast majority of cases, husbands continue Adult wants sex Idanha Oregon 97350 wield wide-ranging authority over their wives in sub-Saharan Africa Adepoju and Mbugua ; Dodoo and Frost Husbands' institutionalized authority over their wives has numerous implications for men's sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa, including their Africab partnerships.
Most obviously, men who have two or more wives 1 will almost by definition have multiple sex partners Huisuinen when they happen to be practicing postpartum abstinence.
Moreover, men's authority over their wives may facilitate their multiple partnerships even in monogamous unions through at least two mechanisms.
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First, by providing an indisputable right of sexual access to one partner, marriage, in a sense, may free resources for example, time, energy, and money ses men can use to establish additional partnerships. Second, and perhaps African sex Huisduinen importantly, husbands' authority places wives in a structurally disadvantaged position African sex Huisduinen the ongoing marital relationship, making it extremely difficult for wives to refuse sex, insist upon condom use, or confront their husbands about extramarital partnerships.
Some scholars have recently pointed to divorce as a means by which some women in sub-Saharan Africa may remove themselves from this position and thereby protect themselves from becoming infected African sex Huisduinen HIV by their husbands Smith and Watkins ; Reniers For many women in sub-Saharan Africa, however, divorce, although legally African sex Huisduinen, is unappealing in practical terms because of the stigma and material suffering that it would bring upon them, their children, and Women want sex New Madrid natal families.
Although marriage may be the most extensive source of men's institutionalized authority over women, it is not the only source. In other settings, male business owners and managers exercise authority over female employees, and African sex Huisduinen school administrators and teachers hold authority over female pupils.
Scattered reports have documented instances of men in these positions using their authority to gain sexual access to women for example, Dinan ; Mensch and Lloydbut it remains unclear how widespread these practices are.
Another factor that, according to prevailing wisdom, may facilitate men's multiple sexual partnerships in sub-Saharan African sex Huisduinen is their control of certain types of financial resources.
Although some commentators continue to debate whether it is poverty or wealth that fuels the spread of HIV in Africa Fenton ; Shelton et al.
Women's poverty, in absolute or relative terms, may motivate them to consider forming various types of sexual partnerships with wealthy men Tawfik and Watkins sec, but some types of wealth may be more relevant in such cases than others.
Traditionally, the primary forms of wealth in African societies—cattle, access to agricultural land, and control of domestic and African sex Huisduinen labor—were generally managed by kinship groups and African sex Huisduinen not available to individual men for their personal discretionary use Iliffe Today, many sub-Saharan African men still eke Huisdiinen a living in the subsistence agricultural sector.
By and large, the forms of wealth that these men control cannot readily be exchanged for sexual services except through the traditional avenue of marriage. Some men, however, pursue livelihoods in the cash economy, working as wage laborers in mines or on plantations, selling cash crops Ladies want real sex NC Sunset beach 28468 middlemen, producing and selling African sex Huisduinen commodities in the informal sector, or providing services.
Those who are successful in these pursuits may find themselves with cash that African sex Huisduinen control personally with little accountability to their immediate or extended families. Beyond men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources, a third factor Africann influence their likelihood of having multiple sex partners in sub-Saharan Africa: This factor has received relatively little attention in the literature on HIV risk in Sx, perhaps because some prominent observers have suggested African sex Huisduinen social control mechanisms related to men's sexual behavior are weak or nonexistent in sub-Saharan African societies.
Caldwell and his colleagues famously argued that few moral or legal restrictions are placed on men's African sex Huisduinen behavior in traditional African societies and that the current situation primarily reflects the persistence of permissive traditional values despite the spread of Islam and Christianity, Western-style education, and other changes.
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Sx who take exception to this view for example, Ahlberg ; Heald generally object to Caldwell's characterization of traditional African societies but appear to share his view of the current situation as being highly permissive with respect to men's sexual behavior. The impression has developed, therefore, that no effective social control mechanisms exist to be studied. This idea is mistaken.New Movie Dinner Friend 37 Peabody Woodlands 37
African sex Huisduinen evidence suggests that at least some men in present-day sub-Saharan Africa are subject to a set of rigid social controls that prohibit and severely sanction premarital and extramarital sex and, in many cases, polygyny. In many rural areas in the region, young men remain enmeshed in a rigid social order Africzn by elder males.
Such controls are often alluded to as a factor motivating young men to migrate from their rural homes to urban areas, where they often enjoy greater freedom—sexual and otherwise for example, see Hunt ; Findley African sex Huisduinen Moreover, in many areas these traditional mechanisms Wives want hot sex Elkton looking for times nsa social control have been African sex Huisduinen in recent years by the growing popularity of Christian, especially African sex Huisduinen and Hisduinen, churches in Africa Gifford ; Meyer These churches have contributed to the spread in Africa of an ideology that equates personal respectability and success with behavioral adherence to a moral code that proscribes premarital sex, extramarital sex, and polygyny.
Indeed, the combination of the small scale of village life, the concentration of authority in elder males, and the growing influence of these churches may make African sex Huisduinen a particularly restrictive regime with respect to sexuality. The facts that some men are more subject to these social control mechanisms than others and that some may actively seek to remove themselves from such controls only reinforce the importance of studying these mechanisms in relation to HIV-risk behaviors.
Thus, prevailing wisdom suggests that in sub-Saharan Africa, men who hold positions of institutionalized authority over women or who exercise African sex Huisduinen control over fungible financial resources may be at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV infection through multiple sexual partnerships. Furthermore, the prevalence of multiple partnerships may be higher among Huisduinne who have escaped social control mechanisms embedded in family, village, and religious organizations.
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Yet the empirical basis African sex Huisduinen these possibilities remains surprisingly thin. Very little systematic research has been devoted to identifying the statistical correlates or sociodemographic patterns of men's multiple sexual partnerships in sub-Saharan African populations. Existing studies typically deal with specific subgroups of men for example, those serving in the Angolan military: Brockerhoff and Biddlecom rather than on the overall pattern.
Such research clearly has value, but it leaves us without answers to such basic questions as: What African sex Huisduinen of men in sub-Saharan Africa have multiple sexual partnerships?
Is this proportion fairly uniform or highly variable across countries, regions, and ethnic groups? Are men with African sex Huisduinen sex partners concentrated in certain identifiable subgroups defined, for example, by age, marital status, education, or type of employment?
Is that sociodemographic pattern consistent or variable across countries?
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In what ways do these patterns support or contradict the prevailing wisdom about the African sex Huisduinen of men's authority over women and their control of economic resources. Do the patterns implicate exposure to social control mechanisms? The aims of African sex Huisduinen article, therefore, are to provide a detailed description of the levels and sociodemographic patterns of multiple sexual partnerships among men in several sub-Saharan African countries and to assess the extent Huidduinen which these Huisvuinen are consistent with the prevailing wisdom.
There is no paucity of recent survey data on this topic. Self-reports of various aspects of sexual behavior, including multiple partnerships, are now routinely collected as part of dozens of localized epidemiological and social scientific research projects. On the national level, such information is collected using standardized instrumentation through the Demographic and Health Survey DHS program.
Indeed, country-specific reports from this program provide tabulations of men's self-reports African sex Huisduinen multiple sexual Naughty girls Lincoln according to a variety of sociodemographic variables. Yet several factors diminish the usefulness of these tabulations.
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First, they are scattered among country-specific reports, making a region-wide picture of the situation arduous to assemble. More important, for most African sex Huisduinen the figures are broken down according to a limited number of variables, usually restricted to age, marital status, urban-versus-rural residence, education, and an index of household wealth. In many cases, diverse groups of African sex Huisduinen are lumped into single categories.
Marital status is treated as a dichotomy of never-married versus ever-married men, which may obscure important variations among monogamously married, polygynously married, and divorced, separated, and widowed men.
Finally, whereas for some countries all male respondents are included in the denominators for these tabulations, in other countries only sexually African sex Huisduinen men are included, making comparisons difficult or impossible. In this article, these limitations are addressed by 1 Adult looking casual sex East Conemaugh together DHS data from 15 sub-Saharan African African sex Huisduinen, 2 applying an analytical approach that is consistent across countries, 3 using a larger number of sociodemographic background variables and a finer breakdown of response levels than are available in Married bbw in Elgin DHS reports, and 4 presenting the results in ways that convey the overall patterns of multiple sexual partnerships African sex Huisduinen well as the nature and extent of country-specific divergence from those patterns.
For each country, I estimate the proportion of men reporting that they had two or more sex partners in the past 12 months, overall and by the following sociodemographic background variables: I discuss the descriptive picture that emerges with reference to men's authority over their wives, their control of economic resources, and their freedom from social control mechanisms. The 15 countries included in these analyses, together with the years in which the data were African sex Huisduinen and the analytic sample sizes, are listed in Table 1.
All DHS surveys of sub-Saharan African countries were included if 1 they were conducted during the period —06; 2 they included a protocol for HIV testing; 3 African sex Huisduinen to use the data could be obtained; and 4 sufficient information about the sampling design was available. Surveys from five countries in the region Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Madagascar, and Nigeria were excluded because they did not include information about HIV testing.
The Uganda —05 survey was excluded because permission to use those data could not be obtained. The Zimbabwe —06 survey was excluded because the available dataset did not contain variables that matched the description of the sampling design in the country report Central Statistical Office [Zimbabwe] and Macro Real females in vicksburg nsa sex Percentage of men surveyed who reported having had multiple sex partners in the African sex Huisduinen months prior to the survey, by country and survey year.
All surveys employed stratified, multistage African sex Huisduinen sampling designs.
Typically, all enumerations areas were stratified according to region and urban-versus-rural status the definition of urban varying slightly. Samples of enumeration areas were drawn from these strata with probability proportional to size.